|Sewerage Sector in The National Capital Region
Sewerage is the core element of physical infrastructure that determines the environmental
status of any settlement and as such requires minute planning, development and management.
Development of appropriate sewage carriage system with efficient treatment is the
key element, which acts as a prerequisite for facilitating balanced and harmonized
development. Augmentation of existing inadequate systems/treatment facilities as
well as adoption of new technologies of waste treatment for small and marginal settlements
and rural areas presents a gigantic task demanding special efforts.
In the Regional Plan-2001, it has been proposed that the DMA and priority towns
should treat sewage before it is discharged into the watercourses or on land or
used for irrigation. The other towns where it is not possible to provide a proper
system due to topography and for want of resources, low cost sanitation measures
may be adopted which can be replaced by regular sewage system subsequently. Sewage
should be treated to bring the pollution level to permissible limits as stipulated
by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Pollution Control Boards irrespective
of the type of disposal of the sewage. As far as possible, areas where the annual
rainfall exceeds 75 cm, separate systems for sewage and storm water are recommended.
Rural areas, where piped water supply system exists, should be provided with sewerage
system with treatment facilities. Low cost sanitation measures such as sanitary
latrines with septic tanks and soak pit should be provided in the villages with
hand-pumps based water supply.
A review of Regional Plan-2001 was done in the year 1999, in which it was observed
that only 20% towns of NCR were covered with partial sewerage system, while the
rural areas did not have any access to such facilities. Since the last decade, no
major progress has been made with regard to sewage treatment plants. The rivers
(mainly Yamuna) and various seasonal streams had been converted into “Nallahs” which
carry untreated sullage polluting downstream areas. Some newly developed urban areas
namely Faridabad, Gurgaon (in Haryana) and NOIDA (in U.P.) have installed sewage
treatment plants provided by development authorities but reportedly not fully functional
due to a variety of reasons.
Existing Situation and Issues
Recent studies reveal that at present barring Delhi, where 80% population is covered
under sewerage and 1,500 mld of waste water is being treated, the sewerage cover
ranges from 30 to 70% in U.P. and 60% to 80% in Haryana in the DMA (now CNCR) towns
only. Among the CNCR towns, treatment facilities are available in Faridabad, Gurgaon,
Ghaziabad and NOIDA. No sewerage treatment facility is available in any of the priority
towns of U.P. Sub-region or Rajasthan Sub-region. Coverage of sewerage system in
various priority towns ranges from 40.0% to 70.0% in Haryana, 3.0% to 5.0 % in Rajasthan
and 0.0% to 30% in Uttar Pradesh. Status of availability of sewerage system and
treatment facilities in some of the NCR towns in the year 2000 is given at Annexure
9/I in the RP-2021 document. Not enough database is available to determine the position
of sanitation in rural areas. However, the overall picture is dismal. High incidence
of water borne diseases in NCR is indicative of the poor state of sanitation in
Policies and Proposals (RP – 2021)
In order to improve the overall situation in the National Capital Region for the
harmonized and balanced development for the perspective 2021 following policies
and strategies are proposed:
Preparation of Master Plan for Sewerage System and its Treatment
Norms and standards provided in the CPHEEO Manual for sewerage and its treatment
should be followed.
Rehabilitation/Augmentation of Sewerage System and Treatment Facilities
Poor condition of existing sewerage system in townships/cities should be rehabilitated
and wherever, this facility is not available or is not up to the desired level,
augmentation schemes, should be taken up. Since treatment facilities in most of
the townships are insignificant, emphasis should also be given to provide the same,
as per the requirement.
Operation and Maintenance
Operation and maintenance should be given priority by the local bodies using modern
Policy of Dual Agencies
The policy of having dual agencies for the construction and operation & maintenance
of these facilities in some of the constituent states should be discouraged. In
order to have better environmental management and to avoid over-loading/under-loading
of the system and for focused accountability, overall management of sewerage system
and surface drains with its effluent treatment facilities should be with single
agency in a given town.
Allocation of Land for Sewerage Schemes
Master/Development Plans of the towns and cities should incorporate land allocations
at appropriate locations for following components of the sewerage schemes:
Recycling of Waste Water for Non Drinking Water Use
- Adequate space for underground laying of sewers along roads as per standard cross
- Depending upon quantity of sewage to be pumped, land area for sewage pumping stations
needs to be allocated. On an average, area of 0.25 hectare should be reserved for
each pumping station.
- 0.2-1.0 hectare/mld land area should be reserved for sewage treatment plant as per
the technology adopted, keeping in view the size of the town/area.
All new development areas should have two distribution lines, one for drinking water
and other for non-drinking water/recycled treated waste water for reuse. All the
waste requirements for non-drinking purpose in big hotels industrial units, central
air-conditioning of large buildings/institutions, large installations, irrigation
of parks/green areas and other non-potable demands should be met through treated
recycled waste water.
Creation of Mass Awareness
It is imperative to create mass awareness among public through mass media with regard
to saving of water, waste minimization and utilization of treated waste water for
Commercial Approach for Tariff
With the increased requirement of improved quality of life, Government alone does
not have financial capacity to continue with the subsidies for improving the sewerage
system and treatment facilities in the times to come. Commercial approach should
be adopted by the local bodies for revenue generation.
Institutional Capacity Building
Institutional capacity building measures for management of sewerage system and sewage
treatment plants in the towns should be done for efficient operation and maintenance
of the system. Simultaneously, it should contribute towards improvement in the self
sustainability of the system.
For more information on Sewerage Sector in the NCR, please refer to documents below:
Regional Plan Document on Sewerage Sector
Regional Plan Action Plan on Sewerage Sector
For perusing relevant ministry websites, please click http://www.mohfw.nic.in